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机械加工中获得工件尺寸精度常用方法

(1)试切法

(1) the method of cutting 即先试切出很小部分加工表面,测量试切所得的尺寸,按照加工要求适当调刀具切削刃相对工件的位置,再试切,再测量,如此经过两三次试切和测量,当被加工尺寸达到要求后,再切削整个待加工表面。 That is to cut out a small part of the surface of the machining surface, measure the size of the test cut, adjust the cutting edge of the cutting edge to the position of the workpiece according to the processing requirements, and then try and cut it, and then measure it after two or three times cutting and measuring, and then the whole surface will be cut after the processing size is reached. 试切法通过“试切-测量-调整-再试切”,反复进行直到达到要求的尺寸精度为止。例如,箱体孔系的试镗加工。 The method of trial cutting is repeated until the required size accuracy is achieved through "test cutting adjustment adjustment again". For example, the test boring of the hole system of the box. 试切法达到的精度可能很高,它不需要复杂的装置,但这种方法费时(需作多次调整、试切、测量、计算),效率低,依赖工人的技术水平和计量器具的精度,质量不稳定,所以只用于单件小批生产。 The precision of the method is very high, it does not need complex equipment, but this method is time-consuming (it needs to be adjusted, cut, measured, calculated), the efficiency is low, it depends on the technical level of the workers and the precision of the measuring instruments and the quality is not stable, so it is only used in the small batch production. 作为试切法的一种类型——配作,它是以已加工件为基准,加工与其相配的另—工件,或将两个(或两个以上)工件组合在一起进行加工的方法。配作中最终被加工尺寸达到的要求是以与已加工件的配合要求为准的。 As a type of cutting method - matching, it is a method of processing two (or more than two) pieces together, based on a processed piece, which is processed with another piece that is matched with it. The final size of the finished product is determined by the matching requirements with the processed parts.

(2)调整法

(2) adjustment method 预先用样件或标准件调整好机床、夹具、刀具和工件的准确相对位置,用以保证工件的尺寸精度。因为尺寸事先调整到位,所以加工时,不用再试切,尺寸自动获得,并在一批零件加工过程中保持不变,这就是调整法。例如,采用铣床夹具时,刀具的位置靠对刀块确定。调整法的实质是利用机床上的定程装置或对刀装置或预先整好的刀架,使刀具相对于机床或夹具达到一定的位置精度,然后加工一批工件。 The accurate relative position of machine tools, jig, cutting tools and workpiece is adjusted with sample or standard parts in advance, so as to ensure the dimensional accuracy of the workpiece. Because the size is in place in advance, so the processing does not need to be cut and cut, the size is automatically obtained, and it is kept unchanged during the processing of a batch of parts. This is the adjustment method. For example, when milling fixture is used, the location of the cutter depends on the tool block. The essence of the adjustment method is to make use of the fixed range device on the machine tool or the cutter device or the pre - adjusted tool holder, so that the tool can reach a certain position precision relative to the machine tool or fixture, and then a batch of workpiece is processed. 在机床上按照刻度盘进刀然后切削,也是调整法的一种。这种方法需要先按试切法决定刻度盘上的刻度。大批量生产中,多用定程挡块、样件、样板等对刀装置进行调整。 In the machine tool, according to the calibration disc feed and then cut, is also a kind of adjustment method. This method needs to first decide the scale on the dial according to the test cut method. In mass production, we need to adjust the tool setting device with fixed blocks, samples and templates. 调整法比试切法的加工精度稳定性好,有较高的生产率,对机床操作工的要求不高,但对机床调整工的要求高,常用于成批生产和大量生产。 The processing precision of the adjustment method is good, it has high productivity, and the requirements for machine tool operators are not high, but the requirement of machine tool adjuster is high, which is often used in batch production and mass production.

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